Geospatial and location models

Geonation geospatial and location models

Standard data models play a crucial role in the geospatial and location sector by providing a common framework for representing and organizing geospatial data. These models, such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards like the Geography Markup Language (GML) and the Keyhole Markup Language (KML), enable interoperability and seamless integration of data from diverse sources. They define standardized data structures, attributes, and relationships, allowing geospatial information to be shared, analyzed, and visualized across different applications and platforms. With standard data models, organizations can efficiently exchange geographic data, facilitate collaborative decision-making, enable accurate spatial analysis, and support the development of innovative location-based services and applications.

OGC Standards

The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is an international consortium that develops and promotes geospatial standards.  A full list is available at https://www.ogc.org/standards/

Here are some of the standard data models, schemas, and data classification systems provided by OGC:

Geography Markup Language

Acronym:  GML

Organisation responsible:  OGC

Official web page:  https://www.ogc.org/standard/gml/

Description:  GML is an XML-based encoding standard for geographic data. It provides a framework for describing geospatial features, attributes, and relationships.

Current Version:  3.3

Schema location:  http://schemas.opengis.net/gml/

Standard:  ISO 19136:2007

Type of data:  XML

Primary purpose :  Structured data exchange

API available:  Not available

License details:  Open data

Data model (Power BI):  Available on request

Keyhole Markup Language

Acronym:  KML

Organisation responsible:  OGC

Official web page:  https://www.ogc.org/standard/gml/

Description:  KML is an XML-based format for describing and visualizing geographic data in three dimensions. It is commonly used for displaying maps and geospatial annotations in applications like Google Earth.

Current Version:  2.3

Schema location:  http://schemas.opengis.net/kml/

Standard:  Not applicable

Type of data:  XML

Primary purpose :  Structured data exchange

API available:  Not available

License details:  Open data

Data model (Power BI):  Available on request

CityGML

Acronym:  CityGML

Organisation responsible:  OGC

Official web page:  https://www.ogc.org/standard/citygml/

Description:  CityGML is an open data model and XML-based encoding standard for representing 3D city models. It enables the storage, exchange, and visualization of detailed urban infrastructure, buildings, and landscapes.

Current Version:  3.0

Schema location:  http://schemas.opengis.net/citygml/

Standard:  Not applicable

Type of data:  XML

Primary purpose :  Structured data exchange

API available:  Not available

License details:  Open data

Data model (Power BI):  Available on request

IndoorGML

Acronym:  IndoorGML

Organisation responsible:  OGC

Official web page:  https://www.ogc.org/standard/indoorgml/

Description:  IndoorGML standard specifies an open data model and XML schema for indoor spatial information

Current Version:  1.1

Schema location:  http://schemas.opengis.net/indoorgml/1.0/

Standard:  Not applicable

Type of data:  XML

Primary purpose :  Structured data exchange

API available:  Not available

License details:  Open data

Data model (Power BI):  Available on request

LandInfra / InfraGML

Acronym:  LandInfra / InfraGML

Organisation responsible:  OGC

Official web page:  https://www.ogc.org/standard/infragml/

Description:  The scope of the Land and Infrastructure Conceptual Model is land and civil engineering infrastructure facilities. Anticipated subject areas include facilities, projects, alignment, road, railway, survey, land features, land division, and “wet” infrastructure (storm drainage, wastewater, and water distribution systems).

Current Version:  1.0

Schema location:  Not available

Standard:  Not applicable

Type of data:  XML

Primary purpose :  Structured data exchange

API available:  Not available

License details:  Open data

Data model (Power BI):  Available on request

GeoSPARQL

Acronym:  GeoSPARQL

Organisation responsible:  OGC

Official web page:  https://www.ogc.org/standard/geosparql/

Description:  The OGC GeoSPARQL standard supports representing and querying geospatial data on the Semantic Web. GeoSPARQL defines a vocabulary for representing geospatial data in RDF, and it defines an extension to the SPARQL query language for processing geospatial data.

Current Version:  1.0

Schema location:  Not available

Standard:  Not applicable

Type of data:  XML

Primary purpose :  Structured data exchange

API available:  Not available

License details:  Open data

Data model (Power BI):  Available on request

GeoPackage Encoding Standard

Acronym: GeoPackage

Organisation responsible:  OGC

Official web page:  https://www.ogc.org/standard/geopackage/

Description:  A GeoPackage is an open, standards-based, platform-independent, portable, self-describing, compact format for transferring geospatial information.

Current Version:  1.1.1

Schema location:  https://www.geopackage.org/

Standard:  Not applicable

Type of data:  Raster or vector files

Primary purpose :  Structured document exchange

API available:  Not available

License details:  Open data

Data model (Power BI):  Available on request

PipelineML

Acronym:  PipelineML

Organisation responsible:  OGC

Official web page:  https://www.ogc.org/standard/geosparql/

Description:  The OGC PipelineML Conceptual and Encoding Model Standard defines concepts supporting the interoperable interchange of data pertaining to oil and gas pipeline systems. PipelineML supports the common exchange of oil and gas pipeline information.

Current Version:  1.0

Schema location:  Not available

Standard:  Not applicable

Type of data:  XML

Primary purpose :  Structured data exchange

API available:  Not available

License details:  Open data

Data model (Power BI):  Available on request

WaterML

Acronym:  WaterML

Organisation responsible:  OGC

Official web page:  https://www.ogc.org/standard/geosparql/

Description:  WaterML is a standard information model for the representation of water observations data, with the intent of allowing the exchange of such data sets across information systems.

Current Version:  2.0

Schema location:  http://schemas.opengis.net/waterml/

Standard:  Not applicable

Type of data:  XML

Primary purpose :  Structured data exchange

API available:  Not available

License details:  Open data

Data model (Power BI):  Available on request

GroundWaterML

Acronym:  WaterML

Organisation responsible:  OGC

Official web page:  https://www.ogc.org/standard/geosparql/

Description:  WaterML is a standard information model for the representation of water observations data, with the intent of allowing the exchange of such data sets across information systems.

Current Version:  2.0

Schema location:  http://schemas.opengis.net/waterml/

Standard:  Not applicable

Type of data:  XML

Primary purpose :  Structured data exchange

API available:  Not available

License details:  Open data

Data model (Power BI):  Available on request

Web Feature Service

Acronym:  WFS

Organisation responsible:  OGC

Official web page:  https://www.ogc.org/standard/wfs/

Description:  WFS is a standard for retrieving and manipulating geographic features over the web. It allows clients to request specific features from a server and supports operations like querying, filtering, and editing.

Current Version:  2.0.2

Schema location:  https://docs.ogc.org/is/09-025r2/09-025r2.html

Standard:  Not applicable

Type of data:  XML

Primary purpose :  Structured data exchange

API available:  Not available

License details:  Open data

Data model (Power BI):  Available on request

Non-OGC Formats

GeoJSON

Acronym:  GeoJSON

Organisation responsible:  the Geographic JSON working group

Official web page:  https://geojson.org/

Description:  GeoJSON is a format for encoding a variety of geographic data structures.

Current Version:  RFC 7946

Schema location:  https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/rfc7946

Standard:  https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/rfc7946

Type of data:  JSON

Primary purpose :  Structured data exchange

API available:  Not available

License details:  Open data

Data model (Power BI):  Available on request

Shapefile

Acronym:  Shapefile

Organisation responsible:  esri

Official web page:  https://doc.arcgis.com/en/arcgis-online/reference/shapefiles.htm#:~:text=A%20shapefile%20is%20an%20Esri,and%20contains%20one%20feature%20class.

Description:  A shapefile is an Esri vector data storage format for storing the location, shape, and attributes of geographic features. It is stored as a set of related files and contains one feature class

Current Version:  RFC 7946

Schema location:  https://www.esri.com/content/dam/esrisites/sitecore-archive/Files/Pdfs/library/whitepapers/pdfs/shapefile.pdf

Standard:  https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/rfc7946

Type of data:  Digital vector storage

Primary purpose :  Structured data exchange

API available:  Not available

License details:  Open data

Data model (Power BI):  Not available

Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community

Acronym:  Inspire

Organisation responsible:  European Commission

Official web page:  https://inspire.ec.europa.eu/

Description:  It establishes a framework for the interoperability of European spatial data infrastructure.

Current Version:  Not applicable

Schema location:  https://inspire.ec.europa.eu/Themes/Data-Specifications/2892

Standard: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/EN/legal-content/summary/the-eu-s-infrastructure-for-spatial-information-inspire.html

Type of data:  Metadata, spatial data sets and spatial data services

Primary purpose :  Structured data exchange and Structured data storage

API available:  Not available

License details:  Open data

Data model (Power BI):  Not available

UK GEMINI

Acronym:  Gemini

Organisation responsible:  The Association for Geographic Information

Official web page:  https://www.agi.org.uk/uk-gemini/

Description:  GEMINI is a geospatial metadata standard developed in the United Kingdom. It focuses on providing a concise and accessible description of geospatial datasets and services. GEMINI aims to promote metadata interoperability, simplify the creation and management of metadata, and enhance the discovery and use of geospatial resources.

Current Version:  2.3

Schema location:  https://guidance.data.gov.uk/publish_and_manage_data/harvest_or_add_data/harvest_data/gemini/#iso-19139

Standard:  https://www.iso.org/standard/32557.html

Type of data:  GEMINI is the UK standard for spatial metadata. It’s based on ISO 19139 and takes into account the needs of INSPIRE too.

Primary purpose :  Structured data storage

API available:  Not available

License details:  Open data / Licenced under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence

Data model (Power BI):  Available on request

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